Google Scholar, ORCID

In development

  • Waring and Sabzian Papi. A mathematical model of adaptive cultural adaptation.
  • Sabzian Papi and Waring. On the algorithmic interpretation of culture.
  • Waring, Sabzian Papi, Kling, Niles et al. Measuring adaptive cultural evolution in US agriculture.
  • Lange, Smolla, Waring. The diffusion of preferences in consumer food buying clubs.
  • Waring, Jurlina, Tremblay, Hupper, Lange. Ephemeral cooperation drives the evolution of small consumer cooperatives.
  • Waring, T., & Wood, Z. T. (2020). Cultural inheritance is driving a major transition in human evolution. EcoEvoRxiv.
  • Lange, Smolla, Waring. (in review) Reciprocity supports cooperation in real-world collective action networks.

In review

  • Waring, Wood and Szathmàry. (in review) Characteristic processes of human evolution appear to have caused the Anthropocene and may obstruct the global collective solutions needed to solve it. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Themed Issue: Evolution and Sustainability: Gather the Strands for and Anthropocene Synthesis
  • Currie, Borgerhoff Mulder, Schlüter, Sørgaard Jørgensen, Haider, Caniglia, Avoni, Jansen, Folke, Waring. (in review) Integrating evolutionary theory and social-ecological systems research to address the sustainability challenges of the Anthropocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Themed Issue: Evolution and Sustainability: Gather the Strands for and Anthropocene Synthesis
  • Waring, Niles, Kling, Miller, Sabzian Papi, Gotelli, McGill. (in review) Operationalizing cultural adaptation to climate change: contemporary examples from United States agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Themed Issue: Climate Adaptation Needs a Science of Culture
  • Kaaronen, R. O., Mulder, M. B., & Waring, T. (2022). Applying Cultural Evolution to Address Climate and Environmental Challenges. OSF Preprints.


  • Waring, T.M., Wood, Z.T., Xue, M.J., 2022. Culture is reducing genetic heritability and superseding genetic adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45, e179.
  • Hébert-Dufresne, L., Waring, T.M., St-Onge, G., Niles, M.T., Kati Corlew, L., Dube, M.P., Miller, S.J., Gotelli, N.J., McGill, B.J., n.d. Source-sink behavioural dynamics limit institutional evolution in a group-structured society. Royal Society Open Science 9, 211743.


  • Tran, N.-H., Kucharský, Š., Waring, T.M., Atmaca, S., Beheim, B.A., 2021. Limited Scope for Group Coordination in Stylistic Variations of Kolam Art. Frontiers in Psychology 12, 4770.
  • Waring, T., Lange, T. & Chakraborty, S. (2021) Institutional adaptation in the evolution of the ‘co-operative principles.’ Journal of Evolutionary Economics. [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M., Wood, Z.T., 2021. Long-term gene–culture coevolution and the human evolutionary transition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 288, 20210538. [pdf]
  • Tran, N., Waring, T., Atmaca, S., & Beheim, B. (2021). Entropy trade-offs in artistic design: A case study of Tamil kolam. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 3, E23.
  • Tam, J., Waring, T., Gelcich, S., Chan, K.M.A., Satterfield, T., 2021. Measuring behavioral social learning in a conservation context: Chilean fishing communities. Conservation Science and Practice n/a, e336.


  • Yu, D., Chang, H., Davis, T., Hillis, V., Marston, L., Oh, W.S., Sivapalan, M., Waring, T., 2020. Socio-hydrology: an interplay of design and self-organization in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society 25.
  • Waring, T.M., Jurlina, A., 2020. Review of Cultural Evolution and Its Discontents: Cognitive Overload, Parasitic Cultures, and the Humanistic Cure, Watson, Robert N. Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 4, 145–150.



  • Guan et. al. (2018) The influence of spatially variable and connected recruitment on complex stock dynamics and its ecological and management implications. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. [online]


  • Brooks, Jeremy S., Waring, TM, Borgerhoff Mulder, MB, Richerson, PJ. (2017) Applying cultural evolution to sustainability challenges: An introduction to the special issue. Sustainability Science. [online, special issue]
  • Kline, M.A., Waring, T.M., & Salerno, J.D. (2017) Designing Cultural Multilevel Selection Research for Sustainability Science. Sustainability Science. [online, code, rpub]
  • James M. Acheson & Timothy M. Waring. (2017) Evidence of Cultural Group Selection in Territorial Lobstering in Maine. Sustainability Science. [online]
  • Samuel P. Hanes & Timothy M. Waring. (2017) Integrating cultural evolution and environmental history: Lessons from the history of blueberry production. Sustainability Science. [online]
  • Goff, S.H., Waring, T.M., Noblet, C.L., (2017). Does Pricing Nature Reduce Monetary Support for Conservation?: Evidence From Donation Behavior in an Online Experiment. Ecological Economics 141, 119–126. [pdf]
  • Timothy M. Waring, Goff, S.H., & Smaldino P.E. (2017) The coevolution of economic institutions and sustainable consumption via cultural group selection. Ecological Economics, 131 524–532 [pdf, model, online with sensitivity analysis]


  • Waring, T. M., Sullivan, A. and Stapp, J. (2016) Campus prosociality as a sustainability indicator International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education. 17(6), 895 – 916 [online, pdf, preprint, replication]
  • Waring, T. M., & Tremblay, E. (2016). An Evolutionary Approach to Sustainability Science. Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution, 7(1). [pdf]
  • Richerson, P., Baldini, R., Bell, A., Demps, K., Frost, K., Hillis, V., Mathew, S., Newton, E., Narr, N., Newson, L., Ross, C., Smaldino, P., Waring, T., Zefferman, M., (2016). Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e30 (19 pages). [pdf]


  • Hiesl, P., Waring, T. M., & Benjamin, J. G. (2015). The effect of hardwood component on grapple skidder and stroke delimber idle time and productivity – An agent based model. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 118, 270–280 [online, pdf]
  • Waring, T. M., M. Ann Kline, J. S. Brooks, S. H. Goff, J. Gowdy, M. A. Janssen, P. E. Smaldino and J. Jacquet. (2015). A multilevel evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis. Ecology and Society 20 (2): 34. [online, pdf]


  • Tremblay, Ethan, and T. M. Waring. A Smiling Face Is Half The Meal: The Role of Cooperation in Sustaining Maine’s Local Food Industry. Maine Policy Review 23.2 (2014) : 43 -50 [online, pdf]
  • Janssen, M. A., A. Lee and T. M. Waring. 2014. Experimental platforms for
    behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 19 (4):
    20. [online, pdf]
  • Paul E. Smaldino and Timothy M. Waring (2014). Let the social sciences evolve. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, pp 437-437. [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M. & Goff, S.H. (2014) Coordination, Cooperation and the Ontogeny of Group-Level Traits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37(3) 278-279 [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M., Teisl, M., Manandhar, E. & Anderson, M., (2014) On the Travel Emissions of Sustainability Science Research. Sustainability, 6(5), 2718-2735 [pdf, data, code]
  • Waring, T.M., Goff, S.H., McGuire, J., Moore, Z.D., & Sullivan, A., (2014) Cooperation across organizational boundaries: Experimental evidence from a major sustainability science project, Sustainability, 6(3), 1171-1190[pdf, data]


  • Whitehouse, H., Swann, W., Ingram, G., Prochownik, K., Lanman, J., Waring, T. M., Frost, K., Jones, D., Reeve, Z., and Johnson, D. (2013). Three Wishes for the World (with comment). Cliodynamics: The Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History, 4(2). [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M. & Bell, A.V. (2013) Ethnic dominance damages cooperation more than ethnic diversity: results from multi-ethnic field experiments in India. Evolution and Human Behavior,  (34) pp. 398-404. [pdf]


  • Waring, T. M. (2012). Sequential Encoding of Tamil Kolam Patterns. Forma, 27(1), 83-92. [pdf]
  • Waring, T. M. (2012). Cooperation dynamics in a multi-ethnic society: a case study from Tamil Nadu. Current Anthropology, 53(5),642-649. [pdf]
  • Waring, T. M. (2012). Wicked Tools: The Value of Scientific Models for Solving Maine’s Wicked Problems. Maine Policy Review, 21(1)30-39. [pdf]


  • Waring, T. M. (2011). Ethnic Forces in Collective Action: Diversity, Dominance, and Irrigation in Tamil Nadu. Ecology and Society, 16(4), 1. [pdf]
  • Waring, T., M., & Richerson, P. J. (2011). Towards Unification of the Socio-Ecological Sciences: The value of coupled models. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 93(4). [pdf]
  • Paciotti, B., Richerson, P. J., Baum, W., Lubell, M., Waring, T. M., McElreath, R., Efferson, C., et al. (2011). Are Religious Individuals More Altruistic, Trusting, and Cooperative? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Religion on Prosociality. The Economics of Religion: Anthropological Approaches, Research in Economic Anthropology, 31, 267–305. [pdf]

2010 and prior

  • Waring, T. M. (2010). New evolutionary foundations: Theoretical requirements for a science of sustainability. Ecological Economics, 69, 718–730. [pdf]
  • Alsan, R., Hufford, M., Niell, R., Port, J., Sexton, J., & Waring, T. (2009). Practical challenges to private stewardship of rangeland ecosystems: yellow starthistle control in California’s Sierra Nevada foothills. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 62(1), 28–37. [pdf]
  • Epanchin-Niell, R. S., Hufford, M. B., Aslan, C. E., Sexton, J. P., Port, J. D., & Waring, T. M. (2009). Controlling invasive species in complex social landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(4), 210–216. [pdf]
  • McElreath, R., Bell, A. V., Efferson, C., M. Lubell, Richerson, P. J., & Waring, T. (2008). Beyond existence and aiming outside the laboratory: Estimating frequency-dependent and payoff-biased social learning strategies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, (363), 3515–3528. [pdf]
  • Efferson, C., Richerson, P. J., McElreath, R., Lubell, M., Edsten, E., Waring, T. M., Paciotti, B., et al. (2007). Learning, productivity, and noise: an experimental study of cultural transmission on the Bolivian Altiplano B. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 11–17. [pdf]
  • McElreath, R., Lubell, M., Richerson, P. J., Waring, T. M., Baum, W., Edsten, E., Efferson, C., et al. (2005). Applying evolutionary models to the laboratory study of social learning. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26(6), 483–508. [pdf]