Google Scholar, ORCID

In development

  • Lange, Smolla, Waring. Reciprocity in real-world economic networks.
  • Lange, Smolla, Waring. Preference diffusion in food buying clubs.
  • Jurlina, Tremblay, Hupper, Lange, Waring. Ephemeral cooperation drives the evolution of small consumer cooperatives.
  • Waring, T.M., Wood, Z.T., Xue, M.J. (accepted) Culture is reducing genetic heritability and superseding genetic adaptation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Comment on Uchiyama. pp. 1 – 147 DOI:


  • Hébert-Dufresne, L., Waring, T.M., St-Onge, G., Niles, M.T., Kati Corlew, L., Dube, M.P., Miller, S.J., Gotelli, N.J., McGill, B.J., n.d. Source-sink behavioural dynamics limit institutional evolution in a group-structured society. Royal Society Open Science 9, 211743.


  • Tran, N.-H., Kucharský, Š., Waring, T.M., Atmaca, S., Beheim, B.A., 2021. Limited Scope for Group Coordination in Stylistic Variations of Kolam Art. Frontiers in Psychology 12, 4770.
  • Waring, T., Lange, T. & Chakraborty, S. (2021) Institutional adaptation in the evolution of the ‘co-operative principles.’ Journal of Evolutionary Economics. [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M., Wood, Z.T., 2021. Long-term gene–culture coevolution and the human evolutionary transition. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 288, 20210538. [pdf]
  • Tran, N., Waring, T., Atmaca, S., & Beheim, B. (2021). Entropy trade-offs in artistic design: A case study of Tamil kolam. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 3, E23.
  • Tam, J., Waring, T., Gelcich, S., Chan, K.M.A., Satterfield, T., 2021. Measuring behavioral social learning in a conservation context: Chilean fishing communities. Conservation Science and Practice n/a, e336.


  • Yu, D., Chang, H., Davis, T., Hillis, V., Marston, L., Oh, W.S., Sivapalan, M., Waring, T., 2020. Socio-hydrology: an interplay of design and self-organization in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society 25.
  • Waring, T.M., Jurlina, A., 2020. Review of Cultural Evolution and Its Discontents: Cognitive Overload, Parasitic Cultures, and the Humanistic Cure, Watson, Robert N. Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 4, 145–150.



  • Guan et. al. (2018) The influence of spatially variable and connected recruitment on complex stock dynamics and its ecological and management implications. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. [online]


  • Brooks, Jeremy S., Waring, TM, Borgerhoff Mulder, MB, Richerson, PJ. (2017) Applying cultural evolution to sustainability challenges: An introduction to the special issue. Sustainability Science. [online, special issue]
  • Kline, M.A., Waring, T.M., & Salerno, J.D. (2017) Designing Cultural Multilevel Selection Research for Sustainability Science. Sustainability Science. [online, code, rpub]
  • James M. Acheson & Timothy M. Waring. (2017) Evidence of Cultural Group Selection in Territorial Lobstering in Maine. Sustainability Science. [online]
  • Samuel P. Hanes & Timothy M. Waring. (2017) Integrating cultural evolution and environmental history: Lessons from the history of blueberry production. Sustainability Science. [online]
  • Goff, S.H., Waring, T.M., Noblet, C.L., (2017). Does Pricing Nature Reduce Monetary Support for Conservation?: Evidence From Donation Behavior in an Online Experiment. Ecological Economics 141, 119–126. [pdf]
  • Timothy M. Waring, Goff, S.H., & Smaldino P.E. (2017) The coevolution of economic institutions and sustainable consumption via cultural group selection. Ecological Economics, 131 524–532 [pdf, model, online with sensitivity analysis]


  • Waring, T. M., Sullivan, A. and Stapp, J. (2016) Campus prosociality as a sustainability indicator International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education. 17(6), 895 – 916 [online, pdf, preprint, replication]
  • Waring, T. M., & Tremblay, E. (2016). An Evolutionary Approach to Sustainability Science. Cliodynamics: The Journal of Quantitative History and Cultural Evolution, 7(1). [pdf]
  • Richerson, P., Baldini, R., Bell, A., Demps, K., Frost, K., Hillis, V., Mathew, S., Newton, E., Narr, N., Newson, L., Ross, C., Smaldino, P., Waring, T., Zefferman, M., (2016). Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, e30 (19 pages). [pdf]


  • Hiesl, P., Waring, T. M., & Benjamin, J. G. (2015). The effect of hardwood component on grapple skidder and stroke delimber idle time and productivity – An agent based model. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 118, 270–280 [online, pdf]
  • Waring, T. M., M. Ann Kline, J. S. Brooks, S. H. Goff, J. Gowdy, M. A. Janssen, P. E. Smaldino and J. Jacquet. (2015). A multilevel evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis. Ecology and Society 20 (2): 34. [online, pdf]


  • Tremblay, Ethan, and T. M. Waring. A Smiling Face Is Half The Meal: The Role of Cooperation in Sustaining Maine’s Local Food Industry. Maine Policy Review 23.2 (2014) : 43 -50 [online, pdf]
  • Janssen, M. A., A. Lee and T. M. Waring. 2014. Experimental platforms for
    behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 19 (4):
    20. [online, pdf]
  • Paul E. Smaldino and Timothy M. Waring (2014). Let the social sciences evolve. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, pp 437-437. [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M. & Goff, S.H. (2014) Coordination, Cooperation and the Ontogeny of Group-Level Traits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37(3) 278-279 [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M., Teisl, M., Manandhar, E. & Anderson, M., (2014) On the Travel Emissions of Sustainability Science Research. Sustainability, 6(5), 2718-2735 [pdf, data, code]
  • Waring, T.M., Goff, S.H., McGuire, J., Moore, Z.D., & Sullivan, A., (2014) Cooperation across organizational boundaries: Experimental evidence from a major sustainability science project, Sustainability, 6(3), 1171-1190[pdf, data]


  • Whitehouse, H., Swann, W., Ingram, G., Prochownik, K., Lanman, J., Waring, T. M., Frost, K., Jones, D., Reeve, Z., and Johnson, D. (2013). Three Wishes for the World (with comment). Cliodynamics: The Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History, 4(2). [pdf]
  • Waring, T.M. & Bell, A.V. (2013) Ethnic dominance damages cooperation more than ethnic diversity: results from multi-ethnic field experiments in India. Evolution and Human Behavior,  (34) pp. 398-404. [pdf]


  • Waring, T. M. (2012). Sequential Encoding of Tamil Kolam Patterns. Forma, 27(1), 83-92. [pdf]
  • Waring, T. M. (2012). Cooperation dynamics in a multi-ethnic society: a case study from Tamil Nadu. Current Anthropology, 53(5),642-649. [pdf]
  • Waring, T. M. (2012). Wicked Tools: The Value of Scientific Models for Solving Maine’s Wicked Problems. Maine Policy Review, 21(1)30-39. [pdf]


  • Waring, T. M. (2011). Ethnic Forces in Collective Action: Diversity, Dominance, and Irrigation in Tamil Nadu. Ecology and Society, 16(4), 1. [pdf]
  • Waring, T., M., & Richerson, P. J. (2011). Towards Unification of the Socio-Ecological Sciences: The value of coupled models. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 93(4). [pdf]
  • Paciotti, B., Richerson, P. J., Baum, W., Lubell, M., Waring, T. M., McElreath, R., Efferson, C., et al. (2011). Are Religious Individuals More Altruistic, Trusting, and Cooperative? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Religion on Prosociality. The Economics of Religion: Anthropological Approaches, Research in Economic Anthropology, 31, 267–305. [pdf]

2010 and prior

  • Waring, T. M. (2010). New evolutionary foundations: Theoretical requirements for a science of sustainability. Ecological Economics, 69, 718–730. [pdf]
  • Alsan, R., Hufford, M., Niell, R., Port, J., Sexton, J., & Waring, T. (2009). Practical challenges to private stewardship of rangeland ecosystems: yellow starthistle control in California’s Sierra Nevada foothills. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 62(1), 28–37. [pdf]
  • Epanchin-Niell, R. S., Hufford, M. B., Aslan, C. E., Sexton, J. P., Port, J. D., & Waring, T. M. (2009). Controlling invasive species in complex social landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(4), 210–216. [pdf]
  • McElreath, R., Bell, A. V., Efferson, C., M. Lubell, Richerson, P. J., & Waring, T. (2008). Beyond existence and aiming outside the laboratory: Estimating frequency-dependent and payoff-biased social learning strategies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, (363), 3515–3528. [pdf]
  • Efferson, C., Richerson, P. J., McElreath, R., Lubell, M., Edsten, E., Waring, T. M., Paciotti, B., et al. (2007). Learning, productivity, and noise: an experimental study of cultural transmission on the Bolivian Altiplano B. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 11–17. [pdf]
  • McElreath, R., Lubell, M., Richerson, P. J., Waring, T. M., Baum, W., Edsten, E., Efferson, C., et al. (2005). Applying evolutionary models to the laboratory study of social learning. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26(6), 483–508. [pdf]